Monthly Archive: June 2013

Citizenship Education from a Swedish Perspective

A citizen may be described as a member of a political community or state, who has certain legal, social and moral rights, duties and responsibilities. Citizenship is a political concept with a variety of rights and responsibilities in a given political community. These rights and responsibilities change over time as the result of social struggle, economic change and shifts in governing ideology. The idea of citizenship is built on the principle of equal value and equal opportunity for the people to take part in and influence public activities. Even though citizenship can mean different things in different nations, it also has a broader sociological and historical meaning that is universal (Petersson, Hermansson, Micheletti, Teorell &Westholm, 1998). It may also appear as an identity that is viewed as dynamic and elusive, and an object of continuous negotiation in a global world (Sandström Kjellin & Stier, 2008). For example, Vinken (2005) focuses on citizenship defined as the process in which young people develop trust in others and in society’s institutions and associations, which, to some degree, serve a public cause. Sandström Kjellin and Stier (2008) even argue that we live in a world that is more globalised than in any other historical era.

Inglehart (1997) and Giddens (1991) state that young citizens participate in society with “self-actualizing” or “self-reflexive” involvements in personally meaningful causes guided by their own lifestyles and shifting social networks. In the light of new knowledge and experiences, people constantly reconsider and redevelop their self (Giddens, 1991). A portfolio with skills for citizenship has been identified as to be able to show mutual respect to others, to have social awareness, to be able to take self-responsibility, and to have good self-confidence and self-worth (Hall, Williams & Coffey, 2010). Schreiner and Sjöberg (2007) argue that when young people choose an education, they simultaneously express important components of their identity. Education is seen as a means for self-actualization, for fulfilling and developing personal talents and abilities. Moreover, late-modern societies (Western modernised countries) attempt to develop citizens who are self-directed and self-expressive individuals. Consequently, Schreiner and Sjöberg (2007) claim that students in late-modern classrooms might reasonably expect their values and voices to be taken into account in one way or another.

Citizenship is not a school subject at Swedish schools. Aspects and perspectives of people’s citizenship are included as a part of different school subjects such as civics and history. Citizenship is a part of the Swedish school system expressed as “the Swedish school system’s value ground/fundamental values” that is supposed to permeate all activities in the elementary and secondary schools.

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(Author: Lisbeth Lindström

Published by Macrothink Institute)


Ethics in the Accounting Curriculum

The number of corporate debacles in recent history has been a great concern to the financial community. From Enron to Bear Stearns, the events have highlighted that greed, incompetence, and deception exist systemically. After these and other similar events, the importance of professional ethics intensified. Has this concern compelled academic institutions to provide greater emphasis on ethics in accounting degree programs?

The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which ethics is included in undergraduate and graduate accounting curricula of private and public colleges and universities in the United States. Such documentation is needed to assess the adequacy of ethics education among accounting students..

The paper makes three significant assumptions. First, the highest ranked private and public schools in each state are representative of other schools that offer degrees in accounting. Second, the use of the word “ethics” in the course title or in the course description from online school catalogs is evidence of a standalone ethics course or of ethics being integrated into one or more courses throughout the accounting curriculum. Courses that have “ethics” in the title are assumed to represent standalone ethics courses and are assumed to provide more extensive coverage of ethics than courses that integrate ethics into course content. Finally, the study assumes that all standalone ethics courses are comparable and courses that integrate ethics are comparable.

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(Author: James H. Thompson

Published by Macrothink Institute)

A Sociolinguistics Study of Conversational Swearing in Iran

As an old communicative phenomenon, swearing has been a frequent speech act adopted in daily conversation as well as formal ceremonies in Iran. The loan word “Qasam” from Arabic and the old Avestan word “Sougand” are the equivalent terms for swearing in contemporary Persian language.

As Abdel-Jawad (2000) notes Qasam, a synonym of yamiin or ‘oath’ is the speech act by which an individual necessitates him/herself to do or not to do a particular physical or juridical act, by referring the name of God or one of the sacred powers. He continues that based on their domains, oaths can be classified into three groups: “ judiciary oaths which are formally taken in the court of law; loyalty, constitutional or office oaths and pledges taken by senior officials when assuming office; and finally extra judiciary or conversational swearing uttered by people rather routinely in their daily interactions and dealings” (p.218).

In different eras, swearing has oriented toward different forms depending on the poets’, writers’, and critics’ interests. As a result in one time the religious swearing has been prevalent and in another time the emotional swearing and still in the next time the dirty swearing expressions have been thrived. Today, swearing is a commonplace phenomenon among Iranian people to the extent that they often swear quit frequently without much attention being devoted to the fact that what they say is a swear expression.

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(Author: Mohammad Aliakbari, Zahra Heidarizadi, Elham Mahjub

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Eradication of cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions through active participation in sport

This paper focuses on sport as panacea for cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The vices that stigmatized the tertiary institutions today are traceable to the uncontrolled behaviour of students. School authorities and concerned government over the years have applied measures to check the excesses of students in tertiary institutions without noticeable success. Sports stand to provide the needed solution to these linger problems of cultism in tertiary institutions. Sports is perceived as wholesome pursuits for students in tertiary institution which channel their thinking and disposition toward worthwhile goal.

Sports provide students the opportunity to cultivate sportsmanship qualities, which is necessary for school discipline. The paper focused on the educational values of sports to include self discipline and control, obedience to and co-operation with constituted authorities among others. Similarly, sports provide students with safety value of letting off excessive energies, which ordinarily could have been mischievously channeled towards acts that are opposed to school discipline. The sports programme organization in schools were highlighted the components of a sound sports programmes in Nigerian te   rtiary institutions from which students can benefit in building up desirable behaviour were also discussed. Finally, recommendations were made on  how participation in sports by students can help solve the problems of cultism activities in tertiary institutions.

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(Author: Dr. S. B. C. Iheanacho, Dr. E. E. Ikpeme, Idris A. Saba

Published by Macrothink Institute)



Irreversibility, Option Demand and Environmental Preservation

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the government’s choice on whether to preserve or to
construct a hydroelectric dam when there is a willingness to pay for retaining the option to
use the environmental area. Extending the model used by Maler  & Fisher(2005) to explore
the problem of choosing whether to preserve or to develop a tract of land, I show that in the
context of uncertainty about future benefits, the government would choose to preserve the
land when there is an option demand to refrain from using the environmental site.
Cameroon’s government has launched in June 2012, for a value of US $ 840 million, the
construction of a hydroelectric dam in Memve’ele waterfalls in order to boost the electricity
supply. Memvele’ele waterfalls are one of the richest biodiversity areas of the Campo-Ma’an
landscape. The Campo-Ma’an is located in the southwestern corner of Cameroon bordering
to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Campo-Ma’an features a National park containing 80
animal mammals such as forest elephants, leopards and gorillas; 302 bird species; 122 reptile
species and 250 fish species. The Campo-Ma’an also contains a coastline of 65 km with
attractive beaches, diverse ethnic groups with different cultural heritage and archaeological

The particularity of Memve’ele waterfalls is that they are very close to the biologically part
of the Campo-Ma’an National Park. The proximity of the Memve’ele hydroelectric dam with
the park is then a great concern. A simulation of the zone of impact of the Memve’ele dam
within a radius of 25 km shows that the park’s richest part in terms of wildlife will be
seriously affected by the dam construction (World Wildlife Fund [WWF], 2008).
When the existence of a grand scenic wonder or a unique and fragile ecosystem, such as
Campo-Ma’an National Park is involved, its preservation and continued availability are
significant part of the real income of many individuals (Krutilla, 1967). In fact, people
anticipate visiting the park at sometime in the future although they never will visit it. If these
people are rational, they will be willing to pay for retaining the option to visit the park in the
future (Weisbrod, 1964). A question can therefore arise: should the Campo-Ma’an National
Park be preserved in its natural state for wilderness recreation or further developed as

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(Author: Etienne Bienvenu Akono.

Published by Macrothink Institute)