Monthly Archive: August 2013

Macrothink Institute Supports Wikimedia Foundation

Recently, Macrothink Institute support Wikimedia Foundation, an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is operates several online collaborative wiki projects including Wikipedia, Wiktionary and etc. Its flagship project, Wikipedia, ranks in the top-ten most-visited websites worldwide. Unlike conventional publishing firms, Macrothink Institute is an open access journal publisher. This requires collecting, archiving and allowing public research access to scientific, mathematical or general educational materials indicative of one’s scholarly efforts. Successful earlier models include TerraNova, Journal of Internet Medical Research and British Medical Journal.

Macrothink Institute also supports the Open Access Journal format for sharing definitive studies, making materials immediately available after carefully vetting hundreds of quarterly research articles or white paper submissions. Their careful review process assures all materials conform to author guidelines.

Research-based journals have widely been archived, subsidized or simply quashed by more commanding scientific nomenclature. Only few provide actual sponsorship of scientific projects, Macrothink Institute always stay positive to donate scientific or educational projects. Shared under widely accepted Creative Commons licensure, the abundance of materials Macrothink provides students, scientists and general educators far amass the general libraries, and is much quicker to read than large print books.

Now, Macrothink Institute publishes more than 20 Open Access Journals, and makes paper publications available after careful peer reviews. To a scientific publisher, how to maintain accuracy is paramount. Editorial staff is in hierarchical format, each rank having one or more editors responsible for reviewing submissions before updating journals online. Consistently publishing works from scientists, engineers, economists and cultural experts provides an opportunity to announce developments in each of those areas.

Macrothink Institute supports, through numerous international and local authors, the continuous efforts in expanding Open Access Journals. For reasons clearly stipulated, the importance of open journals elevates with each published paper, article and book.

Water Transmission Protocols and Sustainable Development in Face of Climate Change. Case study: Urban water supply in Dez to Qomrood Water Transmission Project, Iran

Despite worldwide attempts to control growing rate of population, Middle East faces a significant increasing number: from 60 million in 1950 to 277 million in 2007(Sirageldin, 2002). In the same period, Iran has experienced a higher growth proportion from 16.9 million to 71.2 million which most of them have decided to live in urban regions. Furthermore, the most growing industrial districts and expanding cities are located in the arid region around central desert of Iran and an overwhelming majority of Global Climate Models (GCM) predicts more severe droughts and longer periods of low precipitation seasons in this country (Sumner, 1989; Fahimi & Kent, 2007; Maknoon et al., 2012). By considering this exacerbating condition, it can be claimed that the region actually faces a serious water shortage crisis. As a solution, Iran ministry of energy attempts to supply developing areas water demand, with water transmission from rich basins to aired regions. In the case of Dez to Qomrood project, three basic water transmission protocols have been candidated by Iranian ministry of energy. However, like many other major water resources projects in the previous century, the preliminary proceeding backs to 1960’s, which results in the construction of many infrastructures of the project before the declaration of the Climate change Theory. In the frame work of sustainable development, this project and its protocols should be applied in a series of researches to evaluate their efficiency for each particular aspect. However, there are few attempts reflecting practical results in this case (Maknoon et al., 2012). This research focuses on urban water supply in Dez to Qomrood Water Transmission Project.

2. Climatic Scenarios and Water Resources Management

Young science of climate prediction contains a wide range of uncertainties derived from nature and human activities. In addition to the complicated behavior of ocean-atmosphere cycle, Greenhouse emission, as the main factor of climate change issue, has become a complex socio-economic dispute with vague effective factors. Moreover, the results of different GCMs are noticeably unequal for a definite area. Regarding these reasons, a lucrative research must contain an extensive range of climate scenarios and GCMs to cover the most possible space of uncertainty. Multi model projection and scenario making have been used by numerous water engineering researchers such as Andersson et al. (2006), Serrat-Capdevila et al. (2007), Kunstmann et al. (2008), Maknoon et al. (2012), Van Oldenborgh et al. (2012), and Chikamoto et al. (2013).

For full text: click here

(Author: Masoud Kazem, Maryam Hasanzadeh, Reza Maknoon

Published by Macrothink Institute)