A System Dynamics Approach for the Determination of Adverse Health Impacts of Healthcare Waste Incinerators and Landfill Sites on Employees

Nowadays, settlements are more centered on housing areas. This causes new problems especially on the systems of sewer and garbage. The previous natural discharge, draining it to the rivers, had been considered successful. At first, it did not cause any problem since the amount of garbage was little. However, the increasing waste disposal results in the increasing environmental contamination. The centered settlements make the high accumulation of household waste in the sewer. It reduces the quality of water in rivers if the waste has not been processed properly first.To solve this problem, the waste needs to be processed. One of the processes is by using WWTP.

Quality problems in built environments of society settlements of most big cities in Indonesia become multi-dimension problems. The rapid developments of big cities are marked by the more increasing number of population in cities. It has impacts on the volume of solid and liquid waste produced. Therefore, the production of waste per unit area also increases (Soemarwoto, 1983). If there is no appropriate action to handle this problem, so it will cause a serious problem. The more dense the area, the more complex the contamination, especially dealing with household or domestic waste. Uncontrolled domestic waste has contaminated most rivers in Indonesia, especially Java (Hadi S. P. and Samekto Adjie, 2007).

Domestic or household waste consists of dirty water disposal of bathrooms, toilets, and kitchens. This dirt is the mixture of mineral and organic elements in various shapes, including big and small particles, solid, floated residues scraps and colloid and half colloidal (Martopo S, 1987).

Generally, biological treatment is used to reduce and lower the level of organic contamination in wastewater. It uses and utilizes microorganism liveliness (Mahida, 1993), for example by using activated sludge, tricling filter) and waste stabilization ponds.

Waste stabilization ponds are used to repair the quality of wastewater relied on natural processes using the existance of bacteria, algae and zooplankton to reduce organic pollutants in wastewater (Kayombo et al., 2002; Beran and Kargi, 2005; Puspita L., et al., 2005).

Commonly used disposal system is draining the wastewater from toilets into septic tanks. Then, the runoff water from the septic tanks is absorbed on the ground or disposed to public canals. While the non toilet wastewater from bathrooms and kitchens is directly disposed to the public canals.

The aim of this research is as an means to control domestic wastewater contamination in cities which is commonly disposed through cities sewer networks and led into centered WWTP, that predicts organic waste load.

The importance in building the centered WWTP is to support the program of clean rivers (Prokasih), to prevent or reduce soil contamination, to save private treatment manufacture and to increase healthy environment improvement. Waste stabilization ponds are suitable to be applied on the developing countries (especially in tropical areas with warm climates), since the treatment of these ponds does not need high investment and treatment fees. They also do not need special operators (Mara D., et al., 1992; Mashauri and Kayombo et al, 2002; Beran and Kargi, 2005; Puspita L., et al, 2005).

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(Author: Nesli Ciplak

Published by Macrothink Institute)