Social Sciences and Humanities

Social Sciences and Humanities journal published by Macrothink Institute

Macrothink Institute – The Trend Setter in Digital Era Publishes Electronic Journals

Dedicated to academic publication and scientific research, this private organization leads in the field of digital scholarly publications. The institute facilitates its online readers through open access features that enable the students and researchers from all over the world to access, read, and benefit from its research journals.

Macrothink Institute (Twitter) realizes that the print versions of scholarly research journals are costly not only to the institute itself, but to the ultimate end users too. Besides, the electronic versions are far better in reach as compared to the print versions. Online scholarly journals are accessible to the masses at a highly reduced cost.

The institute also contributes to environment conservation through less paper use. Macrothink Institute provides international exposure to potential researchers as it sponsors their research work. It is indeed a commendable attempt to promote scientific research. There’s no subscription fee for reading or downloading the journals that the institute publishes.

Electronic Journal Publication – The Latest Trend

More and more publications and research institutes are now shifting to electronic publications because print versions are no longer efficient. Printed journals are costly and do not offer mass coverage. Internet connectivity and a computer device are needed to access these journals. These contain written content, graphics, and media files for better understanding of the readers. Researchers, students, universities, and several other entities benefit from electronic journals.

Though some publishers charge a certain subscription fee on annual basis or charge every time you access the publication, Macrothink’s journals are accessible essentially free of cost. In today’s electronic and digital era, no other medium can be as effective and efficient as are the electronic journals. They provide information at a click of the mouse.

Applications of Electronic Publications in the Academic World

All the recognized and reputable institutes subscribe to monthly research journals so that their students can benefit from them. Faculty also conducts research through the information obtained from such publications. It is easy and more productive to advance a research topic further, rather than starting from scratch every time. Therefore, availability of journals that contain already conducted research helps students to proceed in a particular research area while the faculty helps them research better.

Often times a promising research idea fails to proceed further or attain exposure only because of a lack of resources. However, open access facilitates the researchers as they can access lots of journals for free. Consequently, the benefit is transferred to the entire academic world.

The Role of Macrothink Institute

Macrothink Institute is indeed playing a vital role in academic and scientific research. Its electronic publications benefit people from all over the world. A strong sense of responsibility of this publisher helps to advance academic research while promoting open access journals.

Macrothink Institute Supports the Wikimedia Foundation

Macrothink Institute is a renowned name in the field of scientific research, development, and publication of research papers. It’s a private organization and publishes a number of scholarly journals covering numerous disciplines of science. The journals published by Macrothink Institute are particularly for online readers, researchers, and educators. These are made completely unrestricted for users via open access features.

The institute strongly believes in digitization, and this is the reason why all its journals are published online. Not only is it a great idea to target and serve a large number of readers, but also helps the institute to cut down on its printing costs. Anyone from any part of the world can read and download the institute’s online journals for free thus spreading education and promoting research in scientific literature.

Though Macrothink Institute is a private organization, its mission and objectives revolve around a social cause. The institute sponsors a lot of research projects that it believes are worth publishing. By financially supporting different foundations, researchers, educators, and students, the institute helps promote original research work. Wikimedia Foundation is one of those that are truly thankful to Macrothink Institute for the funds extended to the former.

Wikimedia Foundation was founded in 2003 with a goal to disseminate education effectively and efficiently throughout the world. It’s basically a charitable organization and runs through funds generated from different sources. The organization’s headquarter is located in California but serves online globally. A number of projects run in collaboration under the parent brand Wiki and the most popular one is Wikipedia.

Unwavering goals of the entity since more than a decade have enabled Wikimedia Foundation to grow by leaps and bounds. It’s indeed one of the most successful organizations in the world. As facts reveal, Wikipedia, that is the flagship domain/project of the foundation, is among the top ten high-traffic websites in the world. One can find comprehensive information about any given topic, field, or discipline at Wikipedia.

Wikimedia Foundation, as a whole, has been helping millions of online readers, students, and researchers to excel in their given fields. Free access to information is the leading cause of its success. Thanks to hundreds of donors the foundation has been operating successfully since its inception – a prominent name in this regard would be Macrothink Institute.

Wikipedia allows its users to post, edit, update, and improve any given article from its extensive database. People referring to Wikipedia get free access to information that further helps them in conducting research studies and academic projects. Be it a qualified scholar, a famous researcher, a known educator, or simply a downtown student, Wikipedia is contributing to all their success stories.

It’s important to support such a cause as it helps mankind to grow and be more knowledgeable in a given area. Often highly promising research papers do not get a chance to be published and thus benefits are never obtained from these. However, when individuals and organizations realize their social responsibilities, things start changing. By sponsoring research projects, it’s not only the donor that benefits from the outcome, but also those who refer to those published research papers.

Organizations like Macrothink Institute and Wikimedia Foundation make sure that every promising piece of work gets published. When financial and promotional resources are there, why should researchers not take a step ahead and submit their research papers? Macrothink is always in search of bright researchers and Wikimedia welcomes authentic and original content.

Macrothink Institute is a private organization dedicated to scientific research and publication. Macrothink Institute publishes online scholarly journals that are open to readers.

As a new scholarly publisher, Macrothink Institute aims to be a significant contributor to scientific development in the digital era. We recognize that traditional print journals have some disadvantages iincluding higher costs, paper consumption, low efficiency, and limited distribution while online journals are more efficient, cost less, and are environmentally friendly. That’s why we believe digital scholarly journals are the new trend for scientific publication.

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Macrothink Institute Supports University of Washington NASA Space Grant

Devoted to scientific literature, scholarly publications, and research development, Macrothink Institute serves as a private organization. The institute does not only publish original and research oriented literature, but also promotes other such networks and foundations operating in the same domain. Macrothink Institute offers financial support to ensure that every talented researcher and student is given a chance to showcase their work and talent.

(Photo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130911/MN77972)

The institute believes in digitization. Therefore, unlike many other research journals that are printed, Macrothink Institute issues only digital versions of its research publications. Not only does it help protect the environment since it utilizes less paper, electronic journals are also cost-effective and accessible to a large segment of readers all over the world. An electronic database is all that is needed to distribute the published content.

Washington NASA Space Grant Consortium (WSGC) is a network of colleges and universities that help maintain distinct position of USA in the field of aerospace, mathematics, engineering, science and technology. The primary objective of WSGC is to promote research and education and fund projects to strengthen the State’s position in aeronautics.

Donation to front-line research helps bring authentic and original content in the limelight. No matter how brilliant a research paper is, the benefit can only be drawn once it is published and made accessible to the masses. Macrothink Institute isn’t an organization that runs on funds and donations. Instead, it extends financial support and sponsorships to ongoing research projects at a number of universities.

Individuals, foundations, and private organizations should support such a cause. Research and development as conducted by NASA Space Grant and published by Macrothink Institute are quite beneficial. Often times there are potential researchers who have incredible research papers, but fail to publish these due to a lack of financial resources.

Therefore, other developed entities make a huge difference if they help submit and publish such research projects for the benefit of all the concerned individuals and organizations. Not only the author, but millions of readers also benefit from research material. Besides, it helps the nation make more breakthroughs in science and technology thus encouraging more innovations down the line.

Several students have this mindset to grow in the field of science and technology. Even more prominent and acknowledged is the field of aerospace science and technology. It’s one of the strengths of the US and which is why private and public organizations encourage potential authors to submit their research work in said fields.

Authors and researchers get remarkable international exposure by submitting their research work on such platforms. Macrothink Institute does not only have high quality assurance and systematic network of publications, but also goes the extra mile to sponsor potential authors, if necessary. Such practices aid the country in creating brilliant minds and harnessing their potential in order to grow as a nation.

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Macrothink Institute Supports Wikimedia Foundation

Recently, Macrothink Institute support Wikimedia Foundation, an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is operates several online collaborative wiki projects including Wikipedia, Wiktionary and etc. Its flagship project, Wikipedia, ranks in the top-ten most-visited websites worldwide. Unlike conventional publishing firms, Macrothink Institute is an open access journal publisher. This requires collecting, archiving and allowing public research access to scientific, mathematical or general educational materials indicative of one’s scholarly efforts. Successful earlier models include TerraNova, Journal of Internet Medical Research and British Medical Journal.

Macrothink Institute also supports the Open Access Journal format for sharing definitive studies, making materials immediately available after carefully vetting hundreds of quarterly research articles or white paper submissions. Their careful review process assures all materials conform to author guidelines.

Research-based journals have widely been archived, subsidized or simply quashed by more commanding scientific nomenclature. Only few provide actual sponsorship of scientific projects, Macrothink Institute always stay positive to donate scientific or educational projects. Shared under widely accepted Creative Commons licensure, the abundance of materials Macrothink provides students, scientists and general educators far amass the general libraries, and is much quicker to read than large print books.

Now, Macrothink Institute publishes more than 20 Open Access Journals, and makes paper publications available after careful peer reviews. To a scientific publisher, how to maintain accuracy is paramount. Editorial staff is in hierarchical format, each rank having one or more editors responsible for reviewing submissions before updating journals online. Consistently publishing works from scientists, engineers, economists and cultural experts provides an opportunity to announce developments in each of those areas.

Macrothink Institute supports, through numerous international and local authors, the continuous efforts in expanding Open Access Journals. For reasons clearly stipulated, the importance of open journals elevates with each published paper, article and book.

Water Transmission Protocols and Sustainable Development in Face of Climate Change. Case study: Urban water supply in Dez to Qomrood Water Transmission Project, Iran

Despite worldwide attempts to control growing rate of population, Middle East faces a significant increasing number: from 60 million in 1950 to 277 million in 2007(Sirageldin, 2002). In the same period, Iran has experienced a higher growth proportion from 16.9 million to 71.2 million which most of them have decided to live in urban regions. Furthermore, the most growing industrial districts and expanding cities are located in the arid region around central desert of Iran and an overwhelming majority of Global Climate Models (GCM) predicts more severe droughts and longer periods of low precipitation seasons in this country (Sumner, 1989; Fahimi & Kent, 2007; Maknoon et al., 2012). By considering this exacerbating condition, it can be claimed that the region actually faces a serious water shortage crisis. As a solution, Iran ministry of energy attempts to supply developing areas water demand, with water transmission from rich basins to aired regions. In the case of Dez to Qomrood project, three basic water transmission protocols have been candidated by Iranian ministry of energy. However, like many other major water resources projects in the previous century, the preliminary proceeding backs to 1960’s, which results in the construction of many infrastructures of the project before the declaration of the Climate change Theory. In the frame work of sustainable development, this project and its protocols should be applied in a series of researches to evaluate their efficiency for each particular aspect. However, there are few attempts reflecting practical results in this case (Maknoon et al., 2012). This research focuses on urban water supply in Dez to Qomrood Water Transmission Project.

2. Climatic Scenarios and Water Resources Management

Young science of climate prediction contains a wide range of uncertainties derived from nature and human activities. In addition to the complicated behavior of ocean-atmosphere cycle, Greenhouse emission, as the main factor of climate change issue, has become a complex socio-economic dispute with vague effective factors. Moreover, the results of different GCMs are noticeably unequal for a definite area. Regarding these reasons, a lucrative research must contain an extensive range of climate scenarios and GCMs to cover the most possible space of uncertainty. Multi model projection and scenario making have been used by numerous water engineering researchers such as Andersson et al. (2006), Serrat-Capdevila et al. (2007), Kunstmann et al. (2008), Maknoon et al. (2012), Van Oldenborgh et al. (2012), and Chikamoto et al. (2013).

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(Author: Masoud Kazem, Maryam Hasanzadeh, Reza Maknoon

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Criteria of Total Quality Management of Faculty Teaching Skills: Perceptions of University Students

The quality of education is one of the controversial topics and vital issues that need more emphasis from researchers due to the current challenges in education at the university level. The focus of some studies in this area covers studying the concept of total quality management, its objectives, basics, standards, ways of achieving it and the constraints of applying it. Hertzier (1994) presented a comprehensive account of the literature on implementing TQM in higher education. She reported and discussed historical development in TQM, implementation of TQM in educational settings and barriers to implementation. She suggested that the only barriers to TQM were lack of leadership in college and the reluctance of faculty members to treat students “customers”.

However, it seems that there is a need to focus on teaching skills such as communication, planning, implementation and evaluation more than providing students with knowledge and information. This is one of the main concerns and fundamental objectives of the teaching staff at the universities and higher institutes that include a set of factors; the scholars, students, university curricula, and university management. These factors overlap together to affect the quality of university teaching, positively or negatively; and this depends on the availability of quality requirements in all of these factors and to the high level of the quality of university teaching.

Moreover, Political, technological, economic and social changes are other factors that have forced the higher educational systems to respond to these challenges so as to meet the needs of university students. University education is one of the most important pillars of human development since it is a primary factor in the preparation of specialized skills in various areas of life.

The criteria of Total Quality Management require developing the competencies of the teaching staff. A great number of universities have established centers for developing the staff’s teaching skills and competences. Morsi (2002) indicates that the emergence of the need to prepare a well-qualified academic teaching staff started in the nineteenth century. Alwan (2006) points out that it has become necessary for the universities to work on introducing modern systems and typical standards in each administrative level in universities in order to ensure survival and compete with universities at the local, regional and global levels. The trend towards developing teaching skills for university professors achieved more attention as they are directly responsible for achieving the quality of higher education. It is assumed that university professors should keep up with all the current challenges so as to minimize the gap between them and the prospects of this digital generation of students since the concerns of this generation are completely different from those of their teaching staff. Moreover, Williams (1999) claims that the educational curricula give students no chance to show their initiatives and creation. Alsirr (2004) assures that as far as the quality of university education is guaranteed, as far as ensuring the quality of the teaching staff competencies. Hence, there is an urgent need to apply the total quality management criteria for faculty members through developing their teaching skills.

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(Author: Awatif M. Abu-Al-Sha’r, Mohammad Aboud AL-Harahsheh

Published by Macrothink Institute)

The School Health Approach in Quebec: Perceptions of Students’ Parents

With the adoption of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized that the competencies enabling choices conducive to health must be acquired at the start of schooling. More specifically, numerous authors agree that the school plays a decisive role in developing healthy lifestyles in children, since the habits acquired at a young age often dictate their conduct as adults (Hopper, Munoz, Gruber, & Nguyen, 2005; Rivard & Trudeau, 2006; Virgilio, 1996). Accordingly, the revision of school curricula begun in many countries during the 1990s led to a component that targeted health (Puhse & Gerber, 2005). In 2004, WHO reaffirmed the importance of health in the school setting, with particular emphasis on the promotion of healthy lifestyles:

[...] schools influence the lives of most children. They should protect the health of children by informing them, by teaching them the basics of health and by promoting a healthy diet and exercise along with other healthy behaviours. (p. 18).

1.1 Health education

The guidelines issued by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education [IUHPE] (2008) indicate what is expected of the school in terms of health education. Of these, the following are particularly worth noting: 1) promotes students’ health and well-being; 2) integrates health into the school’s ongoing activities, curriculum, and assessment standards; 3) addresses the health and well-being of the school staff as a whole, and 4) collaborates with parents and the local community. Many researchers concur, since they maintain that health education is not up to the school alone, but is a responsibility that must be shared equally with the families and community. As a result, various stakeholders are being increasingly called upon to participate in school health education activities (Bizzoni-Prévieux, Mérini, Otis, Jourdan, & Grenier, 2011; Deschenes, Trudeau, & Kébé, 2009). The recent work by Bizzoni-Prévieux et al. (2011), conducted in France and Quebec, examines partnership from the angle of teachers’ collective work in health education. The school may be the first to motivate collective action, but there are outside participants as well, in this case, the parents, who now find themselves increasingly petitioned in Quebec. Parents are considered key actors – front-line partners even – in the school success of children and teens (Deslandes, 2005; Martin & Arcand, 2005) as well as in health education (Beaudoin, 2010; Ma & Zhang, 2002; Mérini, 2010).

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(Author: Marie-Claude Rivard, Sylvain Turcotte

Published by Macrothink Institute)

The Rehabilitation of the Widows in Pattani Province, Thailand

In the past nine years, the violence situation has spiked in the Deep South (Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat Provinces) and parts of Songkla Province (Nathawi, Sabayoi. Chana and Thepa districts). Since January, 2004, the violence situation is occurred in these provinces, more than 3,000 people have died and more than 5,000 have been injured. More than 7,000 children in the area have been orphaned by the conflict. It is higher than tsunami orphans, Watanayagornkorn Panitan said and Jitpiromsri Srisompob views that November is always the month that violent peak (Jagan, 2008).

The government has the policy for rehabilitating the people affected the violence situation and in 2012, the government supports the Southern Border Province Administrative Center for rehabilitating them 2,080 baht (Prime Minister Secretariat, 2012).

Ministry Social Development and Human Security found that the ongoing violence in the last eight years, since January 2004 – March 2012. The widows are affected by the violence situation 2,450 people. There were classified as Narathiwat 787, Yala 689 and Pattani 898 and Songkla 76 (The Mental Health Center, District 15). In the Deep South, the loan mother faced the economic hardship psychological and mental health and the quality of life get worst and some of them never have worked. (Deep South Watch, 2009).

Pattani is one of the four provinces of Thailand where the majority of the population are Malay Muslim, making up 88% of the population. They speak the Pattani Malay language, although many can also speak Thai. The Pattani Malays are very similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia.

Mrs. Jamjuree Soraya, the training for Peace and chairman of the working group from Prince of Songkla University. She views that the rehabilitation is the Peace for reducing the violence in the future and Mrs. Pokkeetaedaoh Pateemah, the Director of woman for Peace or “We Peace”. She is also expressed the confidence in the power of rehabilitation. The Rehabilitation Work, for people affected by the violence situation. It must have the power to rise up and fight the problem with themselves. That is the capacity to achieve people in the region and the Civil society is the part of resolving that is occurred. The Echoes of family loss and thus Civil Society groups are encouraged and empower to talk the people affected by the violence situation and can make them stand with themselves.

The Deep South Coordination Center has the big role for rehabilitating the people affected the violence in the Deep South. In 2006, the Deep South Watch Coordination Center discovered since the violence starting in 2004, there had been some 310 widows affected by the violence. Because of the psychological and mental illness and economic hardship these women are faced. The center empowers and encourages them and learns to help them sustainable.(South Coordination Center, 2012 ) and the Center has also been working with children who affected by the violence, specifically in Pattani province and in 2008, it provides rehabilitation for children and collaborative with the Mental Health and assist 72 children and Dr. Guning Metta, the Deep South Coordination Center views that:

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(Author: Kanlaya Daraha

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Developing a Measurement Model for Undergraduate Program in Logistics

The era of globalization has seen the rapid advancement of the logistics industry. Malaysia, like other countries, has decided to focus on the logistics sector as part of its policies to meet global challenges (Tenth Malaysia Plan 2011-2015, 2010). This is because one of the challenges faced by Malaysia is to develop competent human resource, equipped with the right knowledge and right skills in logistics. A substantial amount of study has examined the importance of having validated dimensions of logistics program offered by higher education institutions (HEIs). Myers, Griffith, Daugherty and Lusch (2004) study has indicated a useful construct for studying dimensions of logistics program in Malaysia. Findings from Myers et al. study has demonstrated that jobs skills were found to be good predictors of logisticians’ performance but not working experience and education. In a Malaysian context, studies have been done in the context of competency and talent required by logistics graduates (Lim, Dazmin & Jonathan, 2012; Dazmin, 2011).

In the context of Malaysian economy, the growth of Malaysian business activities locally and globally requires competent logistician workforce to manage logistics activities. There is a need to prepare local logisticians to pace with the development of business globalization in the 21st century (Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, 2007). A study from Wu (2007) indicated that HEIs need to provide competence and marketable logistics programs. In Malaysia, with the development of higher educational sector, more competent and marketable logistics programs need to be offered in order to meet this demand. A study from Mohamad Hanapi, Zahiruddin and Mohd Shah (2003) emphasized that it is importance for HEIs in Malaysia to cope with globalization so that the programs offered are marketable all over the world. The implementation of the Cabinet’s Report in 1979, the new Private Higher Educational Act in 1996, the new Education Act 1996, and the upgrading of the National Accreditation Board to the Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA) in 2008, will lead to a high standard of logistics program.

While informative and intriguing, the literature still has shortcomings. Previous studies from Lim et al. (2012) and Dazmin (2011) were only focused on competency and talent needed by Malaysian logistics graduates. Studies closer to the problem were done by Wu (2007) and Myers et al. (2004) where they provide insights for developing dimensions for logistics program. However, their studies were based on the international perspectives for general logistics education.

In view of the research gap and the lack of information concerning undergraduate logistics program in Malaysia, more focus research attempts need to be carried out. One particularly interesting area would be to develop dimensions for the undergraduate logistics program offered by the Malaysian HEIs. In that, it seeks to make a first attempt in developing a measurement model indicating the dimensions that represent Malaysian undergraduate program as seen from the Malaysian logistician’s perspective.

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(Author: Daud Dazmin, Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib

Published by Macrothink Institute)

A System Dynamics Approach for the Determination of Adverse Health Impacts of Healthcare Waste Incinerators and Landfill Sites on Employees

Nowadays, settlements are more centered on housing areas. This causes new problems especially on the systems of sewer and garbage. The previous natural discharge, draining it to the rivers, had been considered successful. At first, it did not cause any problem since the amount of garbage was little. However, the increasing waste disposal results in the increasing environmental contamination. The centered settlements make the high accumulation of household waste in the sewer. It reduces the quality of water in rivers if the waste has not been processed properly first.To solve this problem, the waste needs to be processed. One of the processes is by using WWTP.

Quality problems in built environments of society settlements of most big cities in Indonesia become multi-dimension problems. The rapid developments of big cities are marked by the more increasing number of population in cities. It has impacts on the volume of solid and liquid waste produced. Therefore, the production of waste per unit area also increases (Soemarwoto, 1983). If there is no appropriate action to handle this problem, so it will cause a serious problem. The more dense the area, the more complex the contamination, especially dealing with household or domestic waste. Uncontrolled domestic waste has contaminated most rivers in Indonesia, especially Java (Hadi S. P. and Samekto Adjie, 2007).

Domestic or household waste consists of dirty water disposal of bathrooms, toilets, and kitchens. This dirt is the mixture of mineral and organic elements in various shapes, including big and small particles, solid, floated residues scraps and colloid and half colloidal (Martopo S, 1987).

Generally, biological treatment is used to reduce and lower the level of organic contamination in wastewater. It uses and utilizes microorganism liveliness (Mahida, 1993), for example by using activated sludge, tricling filter) and waste stabilization ponds.

Waste stabilization ponds are used to repair the quality of wastewater relied on natural processes using the existance of bacteria, algae and zooplankton to reduce organic pollutants in wastewater (Kayombo et al., 2002; Beran and Kargi, 2005; Puspita L., et al., 2005).

Commonly used disposal system is draining the wastewater from toilets into septic tanks. Then, the runoff water from the septic tanks is absorbed on the ground or disposed to public canals. While the non toilet wastewater from bathrooms and kitchens is directly disposed to the public canals.

The aim of this research is as an means to control domestic wastewater contamination in cities which is commonly disposed through cities sewer networks and led into centered WWTP, that predicts organic waste load.

The importance in building the centered WWTP is to support the program of clean rivers (Prokasih), to prevent or reduce soil contamination, to save private treatment manufacture and to increase healthy environment improvement. Waste stabilization ponds are suitable to be applied on the developing countries (especially in tropical areas with warm climates), since the treatment of these ponds does not need high investment and treatment fees. They also do not need special operators (Mara D., et al., 1992; Mashauri and Kayombo et al, 2002; Beran and Kargi, 2005; Puspita L., et al, 2005).

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(Author: Nesli Ciplak

Published by Macrothink Institute)