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Peer Coaching: A More Beneficial and Responsive Inquiry-Based Means of Reflective Practice

Farrell (2007) argues that basically, peer coaching was claimed as a follow-up to traditional training, and had three different stages: a scientific assessment of a teacher‟s skill and his readiness level, prepration in a specific method that he should relate in classes, and classroom observations to establish that the teacher is utilizing the model into his lessons.

On the other hand, Díaz-Maggioli ( 2004, p. 79) suggests “a departure from the conventional approach to peer coaching, which reinforces an outmoded view of supervision and professional development by adhering to a transmission model. In the traditional view, the coach is the expert who “transmits” expertise to the novice while at the same time evaluating the novice‟s performance on prescribed skills”. What‟s more is that it further supports the idea that teachers should be fixed, and nothing is remained for a modality of teacher growth focused on teachers‟ needs.

But in a more updated view towards peer coaching and as the name indicates according to (Valencia & Killion, 1988, cited in Johnson, 2009) it is a process where groups of teachers usually scrutinize one another and give support, companionship, feedback, and help. Johnson (2009) believes that such teaching observations can result in positive teacher growth and improved instructional practice.

In the same vein Vidmar (2005) proposes another definition for peer coaching. He claims that Reflective peer coaching is kind of a formative model to make the teaching and learning better by means of determining intentions before teaching, then thinking upon the experience. Based on this definition, the aim of reflective peer coaching can be regarded as supporting self-assessment and collaboration for better teaching and eventually improved learning can be the result of this process.

Moreover, Bell (2002, cited in Carolan & Wang, 2011) states that Peer review of teaching can be used in order to develop teaching and learning-as kind of a learning activity for teachers as well as a way to extend collegiality and contributes developing teacher skills.

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(Author: Mansoor Fahim, Sepideh Mirzaee

Published by Macrothink Institute)

The Life Long Learning Policy in Greece under Deliberation: Aspects of a Formal Exchange of Views

The systematic promotion of the investment policy in the human capital has been evident in the European Union since 2000. This theoretical framework is associated with Lifelong Education concentrating on a model of knowledge provision and training of broader population strata. Educational systems competitiveness and efficiency is tied to the broader draft of harmonization of economy and education. In the Lisbon and Barcelona (Dehmel, 2006) Meetings, strategies about the reforms of the educational systems aiming at the improvement of quality and effectiveness (Preece, 2011) were developed. The society of knowledge was schematically defined (Raju, 2010; Al-Hawamdeh & Hart, 2001), namely a standardized knowledge focusing on economic objectives while the humanistic dimensions that would eventually change the educational environment of the European Union countries was overlooked (Riddell, Markowitch, & Weedon, 2012).

An open dialogue system with the local society was introduced by the G. Papandreou Government so that public sector reformation issues or reforms were promoted. A channel of communication about issues related to voting laws deemed to be integrated into the innovative views about Education or Administration was introduced. Deliberation was considered to be innovative for the Greek political system as the submission of a draft in the parliament and its voting or rejection by the parliament members was foreseen for the change in the policy or the institution of laws.

The issue of deliberation is related to the more general government intentions for the citizens’ society function within the framework of internet society; that is, the citizens that would utilize the possibilities of technology conducive to the formulation of views and standpoints about political issues. The systematic implementation of deliberation by the Ministry of Education was observed following a model that foresaw: a) keynote questions and b) individual observations. Open questions were characteristically chosen so that argumentation would be provided by all citizens, carriers or pressure groups about the views formulated. The deliberation outcome was published on the internet and could theoretically function as political texts of consideration and dialogue.

Special emphasis was placed on Lifelong Learning by the Ministry of Education, an issue also associated with the addition of Lifelong Learning to its responsibilities and after which it has been called Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religion. In July 2010 the “Review of Law Draft Principles related to Lifelong Learning Development” was posed under public deliberation by the Ministry of Education. In particular, carriers and individuals were invited to present their views on the basis of the following questions. Views and suggestions for the particular deliberation were posed by 8 carriers and 49 individuals as it is shown by the publication of the deliberation.

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(Author: Olga Haitidou, Evagelia Kalerante, Argyris Kyridis, Christos Zagkos, Nikos Fotopoulos

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Irreversibility, Option Demand and Environmental Preservation

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the government’s choice on whether to preserve or to construct a hydroelectric dam when there is a willingness to pay for retaining the option to usetheenvironmentalarea.Extendingthemodelusedby Maler& Fisher(2005)toexplore the problem of choosing whether to preserve or to develop a tract of land, I show that in the context of uncertainty about future benefits, the government would choose to preserve the land when there is an option demand to refrain from using the environmental site.

Cameroon’s government has launched in June 2012, for a value of US $ 840 million, the construction of a hydroelectric dam in Memve’ele waterfalls in order to boost the electricity supply. Memvele’ele waterfalls are one of the richest biodiversity areas of the Campo-Ma’an landscape. The Campo-Ma’an is located in the southwestern corner of Cameroon bordering to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Campo-Ma’an features a National park containing 80 animal mammals such as forest elephants, leopards and gorillas; 302 bird species; 122 reptile species and 250 fish species. The Campo-Ma’an also contains a coastline of 65 km with attractive beaches, diverse ethnic groups with different cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

The particularity of Memve’ele waterfalls is that they are very close to the biologically part of the Campo-Ma’an National Park. The proximity of the Memve’ele hydroelectric dam with the park is then a great concern. A simulation of the zone of impact of the Memve’ele dam within a radius of 25 km shows that the park’s richest part in terms of wildlife will be seriously affected by the dam construction (World Wildlife Fund [WWF], 2008).

For full text: click here

(Author: Etienne Bienvenu Akono

Published by Macrothink Institute)

The School Health Approach in Quebec: Perceptions of Students’ Parents

In Quebec, the Healthy School and Global Health approaches, situated at the crossroads of education and health, attract attention for their global and integrated promotion of young people’s health. Within the context of these emerging approaches, this questionnaire-based study aims to describe how parents (N=573) perceive health in the school setting, their role with regard to health and the ways they engage with their child in this regard.

The collected data have been analyzed using a socio-ecological framework; findings reveal that parents have a positive view of school health, but do not necessarily associate it with the approach recommended in the environment as a whole. Generally speaking, they link health to lifestyles, particularly healthy diet and exercise, and demonstrate their involvement in various ways depending on their socio-economic status. This discussion examines the communication strategies employed to familiarize parents with said approaches in school-family relationships and highlights the importance of developing their critical thinking so that parent-child interactions will prove relevant and constructive in the promotion of health. Concerted action and a shared vision for health education among stakeholders in the school and family environments are suggested to optimize the impacts on young people’s day-to-day life.

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(Author: Marie-Claude Rivard, Sylvain Turcotte

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Challenges encountered by Principals during Implementation of ICT in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya

Information Communication Technology (ICT) has contributed greatly to advancement of education in schools globally. However, in Kenyan schools barely use ICT tools to raise teacher productivity, or manage the quality of output, or reduce costs through analyzing expenditures. This is attributed to many challenges facing most schools with regards to implementation of the technology which has resulted to slow rate of adoption and use of ICT, despite its promise and potential in education. This study surveyed some of the challenges principals faced during its implementation.

The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population included 350 public secondary school principals in Meru County. One hundred and five (105) respondents which represented 30% were sampled using stratified and simple random sampling. Questionnaires were used as main instruments for data collection. Validity of the questionnaires was ensured through judgment of experts, while reliability was established through test and re-tests method during pilot study. Ninety (85.71%) questionnaires were appropriately filled and return. Data analysis employed both inferential and descriptive statistical techniques after which the results were presented in tables supported by some discussions.

The study findings established that although principals encountered numerous challenges during implementing ICT in schools, they appeared to have positive attitudes towards its implementation. Principals’ interest; their commitment and championing implementation of ICT programs in schools positively influenced the whole process. A tailor-made in-service training should be regularly arranged for them in order to shift their theoretical interest in ICT into practice.

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(Author: Lisbeth Lindström

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Citizenship Education from a Swedish Perspective

A citizen may be described as a member of a political community or state, who has certain legal, social and moral rights, duties and responsibilities. Citizenship is a political concept with a variety of rights and responsibilities in a given political community. These rights and responsibilities change over time as the result of social struggle, economic change and shifts in governing ideology. The idea of citizenship is built on the principle of equal value and equal opportunity for the people to take part in and influence public activities. Even though citizenship can mean different things in different nations, it also has a broader sociological and historical meaning that is universal (Petersson, Hermansson, Micheletti, Teorell &Westholm, 1998). It may also appear as an identity that is viewed as dynamic and elusive, and an object of continuous negotiation in a global world (Sandström Kjellin & Stier, 2008). For example, Vinken (2005) focuses on citizenship defined as the process in which young people develop trust in others and in society’s institutions and associations, which, to some degree, serve a public cause. Sandström Kjellin and Stier (2008) even argue that we live in a world that is more globalised than in any other historical era.

Inglehart (1997) and Giddens (1991) state that young citizens participate in society with “self-actualizing” or “self-reflexive” involvements in personally meaningful causes guided by their own lifestyles and shifting social networks. In the light of new knowledge and experiences, people constantly reconsider and redevelop their self (Giddens, 1991). A portfolio with skills for citizenship has been identified as to be able to show mutual respect to others, to have social awareness, to be able to take self-responsibility, and to have good self-confidence and self-worth (Hall, Williams & Coffey, 2010). Schreiner and Sjöberg (2007) argue that when young people choose an education, they simultaneously express important components of their identity. Education is seen as a means for self-actualization, for fulfilling and developing personal talents and abilities. Moreover, late-modern societies (Western modernised countries) attempt to develop citizens who are self-directed and self-expressive individuals. Consequently, Schreiner and Sjöberg (2007) claim that students in late-modern classrooms might reasonably expect their values and voices to be taken into account in one way or another.

Citizenship is not a school subject at Swedish schools. Aspects and perspectives of people’s citizenship are included as a part of different school subjects such as civics and history. Citizenship is a part of the Swedish school system expressed as “the Swedish school system’s value ground/fundamental values” that is supposed to permeate all activities in the elementary and secondary schools.

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(Author: Lisbeth Lindström

Published by Macrothink Institute)

 

Ethics in the Accounting Curriculum

The number of corporate debacles in recent history has been a great concern to the financial community. From Enron to Bear Stearns, the events have highlighted that greed, incompetence, and deception exist systemically. After these and other similar events, the importance of professional ethics intensified. Has this concern compelled academic institutions to provide greater emphasis on ethics in accounting degree programs?

The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which ethics is included in undergraduate and graduate accounting curricula of private and public colleges and universities in the United States. Such documentation is needed to assess the adequacy of ethics education among accounting students..

The paper makes three significant assumptions. First, the highest ranked private and public schools in each state are representative of other schools that offer degrees in accounting. Second, the use of the word “ethics” in the course title or in the course description from online school catalogs is evidence of a standalone ethics course or of ethics being integrated into one or more courses throughout the accounting curriculum. Courses that have “ethics” in the title are assumed to represent standalone ethics courses and are assumed to provide more extensive coverage of ethics than courses that integrate ethics into course content. Finally, the study assumes that all standalone ethics courses are comparable and courses that integrate ethics are comparable.

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(Author: James H. Thompson

Published by Macrothink Institute)

A Sociolinguistics Study of Conversational Swearing in Iran

As an old communicative phenomenon, swearing has been a frequent speech act adopted in daily conversation as well as formal ceremonies in Iran. The loan word “Qasam” from Arabic and the old Avestan word “Sougand” are the equivalent terms for swearing in contemporary Persian language.

As Abdel-Jawad (2000) notes Qasam, a synonym of yamiin or ‘oath’ is the speech act by which an individual necessitates him/herself to do or not to do a particular physical or juridical act, by referring the name of God or one of the sacred powers. He continues that based on their domains, oaths can be classified into three groups: “ judiciary oaths which are formally taken in the court of law; loyalty, constitutional or office oaths and pledges taken by senior officials when assuming office; and finally extra judiciary or conversational swearing uttered by people rather routinely in their daily interactions and dealings” (p.218).

In different eras, swearing has oriented toward different forms depending on the poets’, writers’, and critics’ interests. As a result in one time the religious swearing has been prevalent and in another time the emotional swearing and still in the next time the dirty swearing expressions have been thrived. Today, swearing is a commonplace phenomenon among Iranian people to the extent that they often swear quit frequently without much attention being devoted to the fact that what they say is a swear expression.

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(Author: Mohammad Aliakbari, Zahra Heidarizadi, Elham Mahjub

Published by Macrothink Institute)

Eradication of cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions through active participation in sport

This paper focuses on sport as panacea for cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The vices that stigmatized the tertiary institutions today are traceable to the uncontrolled behaviour of students. School authorities and concerned government over the years have applied measures to check the excesses of students in tertiary institutions without noticeable success. Sports stand to provide the needed solution to these linger problems of cultism in tertiary institutions. Sports is perceived as wholesome pursuits for students in tertiary institution which channel their thinking and disposition toward worthwhile goal.

Sports provide students the opportunity to cultivate sportsmanship qualities, which is necessary for school discipline. The paper focused on the educational values of sports to include self discipline and control, obedience to and co-operation with constituted authorities among others. Similarly, sports provide students with safety value of letting off excessive energies, which ordinarily could have been mischievously channeled towards acts that are opposed to school discipline. The sports programme organization in schools were highlighted the components of a sound sports programmes in Nigerian te   rtiary institutions from which students can benefit in building up desirable behaviour were also discussed. Finally, recommendations were made on  how participation in sports by students can help solve the problems of cultism activities in tertiary institutions.

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(Author: Dr. S. B. C. Iheanacho, Dr. E. E. Ikpeme, Idris A. Saba

Published by Macrothink Institute)

 

 

Irreversibility, Option Demand and Environmental Preservation

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the government’s choice on whether to preserve or to
construct a hydroelectric dam when there is a willingness to pay for retaining the option to
use the environmental area. Extending the model used by Maler  & Fisher(2005) to explore
the problem of choosing whether to preserve or to develop a tract of land, I show that in the
context of uncertainty about future benefits, the government would choose to preserve the
land when there is an option demand to refrain from using the environmental site.
Cameroon’s government has launched in June 2012, for a value of US $ 840 million, the
construction of a hydroelectric dam in Memve’ele waterfalls in order to boost the electricity
supply. Memvele’ele waterfalls are one of the richest biodiversity areas of the Campo-Ma’an
landscape. The Campo-Ma’an is located in the southwestern corner of Cameroon bordering
to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Campo-Ma’an features a National park containing 80
animal mammals such as forest elephants, leopards and gorillas; 302 bird species; 122 reptile
species and 250 fish species. The Campo-Ma’an also contains a coastline of 65 km with
attractive beaches, diverse ethnic groups with different cultural heritage and archaeological
sites.

The particularity of Memve’ele waterfalls is that they are very close to the biologically part
of the Campo-Ma’an National Park. The proximity of the Memve’ele hydroelectric dam with
the park is then a great concern. A simulation of the zone of impact of the Memve’ele dam
within a radius of 25 km shows that the park’s richest part in terms of wildlife will be
seriously affected by the dam construction (World Wildlife Fund [WWF], 2008).
When the existence of a grand scenic wonder or a unique and fragile ecosystem, such as
Campo-Ma’an National Park is involved, its preservation and continued availability are
significant part of the real income of many individuals (Krutilla, 1967). In fact, people
anticipate visiting the park at sometime in the future although they never will visit it. If these
people are rational, they will be willing to pay for retaining the option to visit the park in the
future (Weisbrod, 1964). A question can therefore arise: should the Campo-Ma’an National
Park be preserved in its natural state for wilderness recreation or further developed as
hydroelectric

For full text: click here

(Author: Etienne Bienvenu Akono.

Published by Macrothink Institute)